Apis cerana, the eastern honey bee, Asiatic honey bee or Asian honey bee, is a species of honey bee native to southern, southeastern, and eastern Asia. Apis cerana nuluensis Tingek, Koeniger & Koeniger , 1996 La Apis nulensis ( Tingek , Koeniger & Koeniger , 1996) es una especie de abeja descripta en 1996, cuya distribución geográfica es la Isla de Borneo (la … [8], In addition to food requirements for diet, water also plays a key role in the growth and development of adult bees. Apis cerana, sau albina meliferă asiatică (sau albina meliferă estică), este o specie de albine melifere din sudul și sud-estul Asiei, din țări precum China, India, Japonia, Malaysia, Nepal, Bangladesh și Papua Noua Guinee.Această specie este o specie soră a Apis koschevnikovi, și amândouă fac parte din același subgen ca și albina meliferă (europeană) vestică, Apis … "Apidologie 38.6 (2007): 558-565. [37], The bee is known as the Asian honey bee in Australia,[5] and is regarded as a biosecurity threat. Other honey bee species, including the giant honey bees Apis dorsata and Apis laboriosa, generally construct nests consisting of a single comb in open areas. To understand the … Selain ditemukan di Indonesia, spesies ini juga ditemukan di India, Iran, dan Oman. Apis nigrocincta and Apis nuluensis Apis nigrocincta has been identified only in Sulawesi in Indonesia (Otis, 1996), and Apis nuluensis only in Borneo. Although female worker bees do possess ovaries and can essentially produce viable eggs, this potential is almost never realized as long as the colony is ruled by a dominant queen. [18] This extensive mating is performed in an effort to secure a great range of genetic variation in her colony to cope with diseases, as well as respond to nectar sources and a wide range of external stimuli. When an A. cerana hive is invaded by the Japanese giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia), about 500 Japanese honey bees (A. cerana japonica) surround the hornet and vibrate their flight muscles until the temperature is raised to 47 °C (117 °F), heating the hornet to death, but keeping the temperature still under their own lethal limit (48–50 °C). Mites. Taxonavigation . 63, no. Queens themselves are fed larval food by the workers during their wintering season, thereby neither feeding on nor being fed honey. W. Ritter, Diagnostik und Bekampfung von Bienenkrankheiten, Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena, Stuttgart, Germany, 1996. In this system, virgin queens sharing the same father will have a genetic relatedness of .75 and those of different fathers will have a genetic relatedness of only .25. J Apic Res. The fact that the behavioural sequences described here for A. cerana also occur in Apis nuluensis (Koeniger at al. A. c. nuluensis is one of a number of Indonesian honey bees, including the more obscure Apis koschevnikovi and Apis nigrocincta (the latter of which has nearby habitat on nearby Sulawesi and Mindanao islands). These tasks are divided among the female worker bees by a factor of age. (2018) Food reward and distance influence the foraging pattern of stingless bee. The morphometric position of Apis nuluensis Tingek, Koeniger and Koeniger, 1996 within cavity-nesting honey bees. This method involves the wasps taking up a position in front of the beehive, while facing outwards away from the entrance towards returning foragers. [18] Apart from the queen bee, the only other sexual members of the society are the male drones, whose only function is to mate with the queen, after which they will die. Apis cerana(Fabricius, 1793) has been a his- torically continuous process. Winston, Mark L. The biology of the honey bee. [34] The decision was controversial though, sparking a senate inquiry which concluded that it failed to apply the precautionary principle and assess the potential impacts of Apis cerana on biodiversity. (2010) have instead chosen to subdivide Apis cerana into six main statistically-defined populations based on morphotypes ("morphoclusters"), instead of infraspecific ranks, which they argue were invalidly established and not biologically meaningful. By late spring, the colony will have already attained full size, and will begin to reproduce. Nanork, P., et al. Apis cerana nuluensis is a subspecies of honey bee described in 1996 by Tingek, Koeniger & Koeniger. [18] The nest is multi-combed and somewhat insulated, allowing the species to achieve optimal nest temperatures and thereby optimize foraging at early hours. [8], Vespine wasps, endemic to Southeast Asia, are a major predator for Apis cerana, predominantly at their colonies throughout Southern Asia. [16][15][17] Although the species was naturally clustered in East Asia, it has now expanded to various regions across the world as a result of human interference, with particular concern about its invasive potential in Australia as nests are found in a variety of environments, including both natural and man-made (see below). [18], During the remainder of summer and into the fall, the colonies in the new locations build combs, rear brood, and gather food to quickly rebuild their populations and food reserves prior to the arrival of winter.[18]. [27][28] Sacbrood viruses (SBV) primarily affect the brood of the honey bee and causes larval death. [18] The overall direction and duration of each waggle is closely correlated with the direction and distance from the flower patch being described. There are also distinctions between worker bees, queens, and drones. Apis cerana also provides a food source for other species that thieve on the honey … [18], The colony's annual cycle in cold temperature regions begins shortly after the winter solstice, when the colony raises the core temperature of its cluster to about 34 degrees Celsius and starts to rear brood. Harvard University Press, 1991. Their workers (non-reproductive females, Fig. "Social parasitism by workers in queenless and queenright Apis cerana colonies." Heat balling is a unique defense system in which several hundred bees surround the wasp in a tight ball and vibrate their muscles in an effort to produce heat and effectively kill the wasp inside. Apis cerana is an Eastern honeybee species distributed throughout Asia and closely related to the Western honeybee species Apis mellifera distributed across all of Africa, Europe and Western Asia, and subdivided into thirty confirmed subspecies. Subspecies: A. c. cerana – A. c. indica – A. c. himalaya – A. c. japonica – A. c. javana – A. c. nuluensis – A. c. sinensis Name [ edit ] Apis cerana Fabricius, 1793 [8] This idea was further supported through experimental means concerning queen bees isolated in separate cages. [18], Adult worker bees predominantly feed on pollen and nectar or honey, though the nutritive value of pollen varies depending on the plant. The waggle dance occurs deep inside the colony's hive, where the worker bee performs a brief reenactment of the recent journey to a patch of flowers. Other species - The cubital index is larger than 3 up to about 8 or so, the next smallest being A. nigrocincta which has an average cubital index of about 3.5 AND is only confirmedly known from the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia - Integumental color is variable, USUALLY less dark than in A. nuluensis - Geographical range varies among species and will be helpful in separating species, at least A. cerana … (1996). The development of worker bees in a colony is typical of that for any insect that undergoes complete metamorphosis as it includes the four stages of egg, larva, pupa, and adult. [18], As one queen generally mates with over a dozen males, the genetic relatedness of the colony is biased and represents haplodiploid sex determination. Meski begitu, madunya tetap bisa dijumpai di pasaran dengan nama madu lanceng. Apis cerana … Furthermore, other bees may just decide to fly away as an evasive measure in times of conflict, often altering their specific flight styles in order to avoid predation. [21] This appears to serve as a distraction technique of visual pattern disruption that results in confusing predators. Therefore, the probability of personal reproduction by a worker bee is exceedingly low. Neighboring bees observe and learn this dance and can then follow the same pattern, utilizing the odor of the flowers to fly in a certain path and arrive at the same destination. [14] Morevoer, Apis cerana is found predominantly in the Eastern Asian region of the world, while Apis mellifera is found predominantly in the Western European and African region of the world. Four species: Apis mellifera, A. cerana, A. koschevnikovi and A. nigrocincta. Mixed pollens possess a high nutritive value and actually supply all the necessary materials for proper development of young animals. mellifera. The genus name Apis is Latin for "bee". Harvard University Press, 2009. The physical characteristics of Apis cerana are very similar to that of Apis mellifera. Apis cerana indica - Fabricius South India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Malaysia, Indonesiaand the Philippines 4. For instance, in Sri Lanka, Apis cerana males typically aggregate beside a tree canopy as opposed to above a tree as is found in the Apis cerana subspecies of Japan. [4] This large-scale storage tactic requires the construction of a stable and sturdy comb structure for such honey storage. The geographic distribution of the subspecies is the south-east Asian island of Borneo, politically … L. Bailey, “Recent research on honeybee viruses,” Bee World, vol. The individuals in this genus are defined by long, erect hairs that cover the compound eyes and assist in pollen collection, strongly convex scutellum, and a jugal lobe in the hindwing. 1. [19][20], The colony of Apis cerana, a typical honey bee, consists of several thousand female worker bees, one queen bee, and several hundred male drone bees. Middle-sized species with multiple combs in cavities; dances on vertical surfaces of combs in the dark (Michener, 2000). 2) have a corbiculum (pollen basket) on their hind legs to transport pollen. The queen honey bee informs workers of her presence by pheromones that she secretes from her mandibular glands. [6] Apis cerana colonies are known for building nests consisting of multiple combs in cavities containing a small entrance, presumably for defense against invasion by individuals of another nest. Other than defensive behaviors such as these, much of their behavior and biology (at least in the wild) is very similar to that of A. mellifera. All other Apis species are native to Asia. Apis cerana is the natural host to the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae, a serious pest of the western honey bee. The remaining individuals are the males, known as the “drones,” whose only responsibility is to mate with queen from another colony; therefore, drones are solely produced during the reproductive season. When delineating and defining the Apis species, Engel (1999) applied a phylogenetic species concept and considered Apis nuluensis a synonym of Apis cerana—which many apiculturists disagreed with. Apis cerana adults have branched (plumose) hairs on their bodies to assist in pollen collection. Control costs are also significant and amounted to at least A$4 million up to 2011. Infected larvae change in color from pearly white to pale yellow, and shortly after death they dry out, forming a dark brown gondola-shaped scale. These morphoclusters are:[15], The physical characteristics of Apis cerana individuals are very similar to those of other species in the genus Apis. Seeley, Thomas D. The wisdom of the hive: the social physiology of honey bee colonies. However, when dried, pollen quickly loses its nutritive value. [18] Then it undergoes an 8-day larval stage, which is an intense feeding state involving honey, pollen, and brood food supplied by the adult bees. After the last brood emerges, the adult bees fill their honey stomachs from the hive's stores and swarm to establish a new nest at a new location. [4], In A. cerana, reproductive swarming is similar to A. mellifera. Apis cerana has also coevolved with the mite Varroa jacobsoni and thus exhibits more careful grooming than A. mellifera, thus has an effective defense mechanism against Varroa that keeps the mite from devastating colonies. This hawking predation is especially fierce during the autumn season when the wasps are most populous, predominantly during the morning and afternoon. Paxton, Robert J., et al. [18] Scout bees search for suitable cavities in which to construct the swarm's home. Due to factors of genetic relatedness, an Apis cerana worker will often try to prevent other workers in her colony from reproducing, either by destroying worker-laid eggs, or by showing aggression towards workers attempting to lay eggs through worker policing. Many … Although both Apis mellifera and Apis cerana suffer from predation from vespine wasps, one defense mechanism unique to Apis cerana is “wing shimmering”. mellifera." Apis  cerana  is widely distributed from the Asian tropics to the temperate zone and  also from  lowland  to high mountain  regions (Ruttner, 1988). Having largely abandoned the typological approach of Maa (1953) and adopted the multivariate tech- niques of DuPraw (1964, 1965), … The species is found at altitudes close to 2000 … Asian Honey Bees", http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/animal-industries/bees/diseases-and-pests/asian-honey-bees, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apis_cerana&oldid=994425597, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 17:33. In general, the initial set of combs may account for around 20,000 cells, while the final, completed structure may contain up to 100,000. Michener, Charles Duncan. The colony is constructed inside beeswax combs inside a tree cavity, with a special peanut-shaped structure on the margins of the combs where the queens are reared. (1999) The taxonomy of recent and fossil honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apis_cerana_nuluensis&oldid=979433084, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 September 2020, at 18:46. Honey bees of the species Apis nuluensis have a medium size, a darker coloration of the body, and conspicuous four whitish tomentae in the metasoma. If the queen bee lays unfertilized eggs with no paternal genetic contribution, the eggs will develop into drones. In the past, there has been discussion that Apis cerana and Apis mellifera are simply distinct races of the same species. In addition, while Apis mellifera colonies can reach sizes of up to 50,000 or more individuals, Apis cerana colonies are relatively small, with only around 6,000 to 7,000 workers. These signals are acquired by workers in close proximity to the queen and then spread to other workers in the colony, mainly by physical contact. The most significant factor in determining mating time, however, is not ecological conditions, but rather the presence of drones of other species. [4], The terms Apis cerana indica and Apis Indica[9] or Indian honey bee,[10][11] is an historic term, with all Asian hive bees now referred to as Apis cerana. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Engel, M.S. [8], In addition to feeding themselves, bees also feed each other through a process known as “food transmission.” Moreover, workers may also obtain food from the queen, while drones acquire food by ingesting material regurgitated by other drones. Apis cerana nuluensis of Borneo is also now generally considered to be a separate species, as Apis nuluensis. [14] However, despite the striking similarities between Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, there is evidence to suggest that these two species are quite distinct; for example, mating between these species does not produce offspring. A. cerana maintain body temperatures in a range of 33–35.5 °C even while ambient temperatures vary between 12 and 36 °C. [15], Radloff et al. Apis cerana johni Skorikov; Apis cerana nuluensis Tingek, Koeniger and Koeniger; Apis cerana skorikovi Engel (= "himalaya") - Các núi ở trung và đông Himalaya (Ruttner, 1987) Động vật ký sinh. [21] Vespine wasps attempt to attack the honey bee quarry in an effort to gain provisions to aid in the development of their own offspring. If a hornet lands at the hive entrance despite the ISY display, it is pounced on by the A. cerana … The eastern honey bee is of the Apidae family, one of the most diverse families of bees, including honey bees, carpenter bees, orchid bees, bumblebees, cuckoo bees, and even stingless bees.[13]. These bees usually do not store great amounts of honey, so they are more vulnerable to starvation if a prolonged shortage of nectar and pollen occurs. Countries they are native to include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, and Vietnam. The worker's ovipositor (an organ for egg laying) has been modified into a stinger and adults are yellow and black in color. 19 July 2011, The Senate Rural Affairs and Transport References Committee; 2011; Science underpinning the inability to eradicate the Asian honey bee; Commonwealth of Australia, "Interspecific rearing and acceptance of queens between Apis cerana Fabricius, 1793 and Apis koschevnikovi Buttel-Reepen, 1906", "Some Characteristics of the Oriental Honeybee, Apis indica F., in China", "Factsheet - Apis mellifera (The Honey Bee)", "Population structure and classification of, "Ecology, Behaviour and Control of Apis cerana with a Focus on Relevance to the Australian Incursion", "Murder Hornets vs. Honeybees: A Swarm of Bees Can Cook Invaders Alive", "Honey bees (Apis cerana) use animal feces as a tool to defend colonies against group attack by giant hornets (, "Molecular and Biological Characterization of Chinese Sacbrood Virus LN Isolate", "Biosecurity Failures in Australia: 12 Case Studies: 7. 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