(According to an estimate in "Connecticut Wildlife", published in 2004, "Winter density ranges up to about 40 per square mile in southwestern Connecticut, with a statewide mean of 21 per square mile. Moose are native to the state but driven out as forest land was converted into farmland. Bears that persistently kill livestock, enter buildings or demonstrate similarly problematic behavior may be killed under state policy. Hammonasset Beach State Park has many of them; in the early evening, 30 to 40 can be found along the entrance road. [ [http://www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?a=2723&q=326044&depNav_GID=1655] Web page titled "Moose" at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Web site, retrieved December 30, 2007] The greatest danger to people from mooses is car collisions. Anecdotal evidence suggested the population at that time was growing., DEP officials said. Acorn production can fluctuate greatly from year to year, affecting the squirrel population. Even before Connecticut was settled by Europeans, the moose population was never large, according to the DEP. Local police are authorized to kill the animals if they pose a threat to public safety, which in practice almost only means that the animal is getting too close to a highway. Reforestation of the state was the major factor allowing for the reintroduction and expansion of the bear population, and that expansion is expected to continue. It's High Season for Roadkill, and Disposal Costs Mount", article, "The New York Times", Connecticut and the Region section, October 21, 2007, page 3] But the state Department of Environmental Protection estimates only 3,000 deer-motor vehicle accidents occur annually.Lee, Natasha, "Controlled hunt set for nature preserves: Group aims to cull deer population", The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, October 19, 2007, Norwalk edition, pp 1, A6] State policy is to bury deer carcases by the side of the road where they were hit. In 1997, the DEP received about 100 calls reporting bear sightings. From 1992 to 1998, two or three moose sightings were reported each year to the state Department of Environmental Protection, generally in the spring and fall. An example of a situation where exposure cannot be ruled out is when a bat is found in the same room as a sleeping individual or a very young child." In June 2007, a 500-pound bull moose collided head-on with a driver on the Merritt Parkway near Exit 37 in Stamford, Connecticut. It's High Season for Roadkill, and Disposal Costs Mount", article, "The New York Times", Connecticut and the Region section, October 21, 2007, page 3] But the state Department of Environmental Protection estimates only 3,000 deer-motor vehicle accidents occur annually.Lee, Natasha, "Controlled hunt set for nature preserves: Group aims to cull deer population", The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, October 19, 2007, Norwalk edition, pp 1, A6] State policy is to bury deer carcases by the side of the road where they were hit. Acorn production can fluctuate greatly from year to year, affecting the squirrel population. ""'Raccoons and relatives (Order "Carnivora", Family "Procyonidae")* Raccoon ("Procyon lotor") — found near lakes, ponds, marshes and streams; a rabies epidemic devastated the population in the state in the earlhy 1990s, killing as much as 75 percent of the population; raccoon rabies still remains in Connecticut, with about 200 cases a year as of 2004, and including skunk and cat infections as well as raccoons; rabies cases should be reported to police or animal control officialsWeasels, Otters, and Skunks (Order "Carnivora", Families "Mustelidae", "Mephitidae")* River otter ("Lontra canadensis") — previously scarce, but now somewhat common in the state; found in many lakes and large ponds* Mink ("Mustela vison") — rather common in streams, ponds, lakes and marshes; large minks are now extinct but may have lived along the coast of the state in the nineteenth century* Long-tailed weasel ("Mustela frenata") — Like the ermine (or "short-tailed weasel"), fairly common in woods and thickets and near stone walls; especially near rivers and streams* Ermine or Short-tailed weasel ("Mustela erminea") — Like the Long-tailed weasel, fairly common in woods and thickets and near stone walls; especially near rivers and streams * American marten ("Martes americana") — one recent (as of 2004) road-kill in New Hartford, Connecticut (in the north-central to northwest part of the state) was the first certain evidence that the species occurs in Connecticut* Fisher (animal) ("Martes pennanti") — Fishers live in large, thickly wooded forests; the species was extirpated from southern New England when forests were cleared and was absent for more than a century. in 2007 it received 2,000. The state allows bowhunting for deers from September 15 to January 31. In 1997, the DEP received about 100 calls reporting bear sightings. In 1907 the state allowed landowners to shoot deer causing crop damage.l In 1974, the state passed its first deer management act and regular, licensed deer hunting began the next year. The state DEP encourages bear reports on its Web site. When forests were largely replaced by farmland in the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries, populations of moose, turkeys, black bears and mountain lions lost their habitats and were greatly reduced or eliminated from the state.Mammals in Long Island Sound"For more information on mammals in Long Island sound, see Long Island Sound. In 1907 the state allowed landowners to shoot deer causing crop damage.l In 1974, the state passed its first deer management act and regular, licensed deer hunting began the next year. In 1907 the state allowed landowners to shoot deer causing crop damage.l In 1974, the state passed its first deer management act and regular, licensed deer hunting began the next year. In 1997, the DEP received about 100 calls reporting bear sightings. On October 4, 2007 a 700-pound bull moose was shot and killed by town of Fairfield, Connecticut police when it wandered too close to the Merritt Parkway. In Massachusetts, three or four moose are hit by trains each year and about 15 motor vehicle collisions with the animals occur, although in some years there have been as many as 50. [http://www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?a=2723&q=325992&depNav_GID=1655] Web page titled "Coyotes" at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Web site, retrieved December 30, 2007] The state Department of Environmental Protection estimates there are 2,000 to 4,000 in the state as of 2007. The DEP asks people who see bears in Connecticut to do the following:**"Enjoy it from a distance. In Massachusetts, three or four moose are hit by trains each year and about 15 motor vehicle collisions with the animals occur, although in some years there have been as many as 50. It's High Season for Roadkill, and Disposal Costs Mount", article, "The New York Times", Connecticut and the Region section, October 21, 2007, page 3] But the state Department of Environmental Protection estimates only 3,000 deer-motor vehicle accidents occur annually.Lee, Natasha, "Controlled hunt set for nature preserves: Group aims to cull deer population", The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, October 19, 2007, Norwalk edition, pp 1, A6] State policy is to bury deer carcases by the side of the road where they were hit. On October 4, 2007 a 700-pound bull moose was shot and killed by town of Fairfield, Connecticut police when it wandered too close to the Merritt Parkway. mi. Population density is normally no more than one fisher per several hundred acres. Condition: Used, Very Good. (According to an estimate in "Connecticut Wildlife", published in 2004, "Winter density ranges up to about 40 per square mile in southwestern Connecticut, with a statewide mean of 21 per square mile. Then What? Some of the best state parks for spotting owls is Hammonasset Beach State Park and Silver Sands State Park at Milford. [Desmarais, Paul, "Photo Journal: Wilds of Suburbia" photograph (of an Eastern cottontail rabbit) with long caption, "The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, October 2, 2007, page A11, Norwalk edition, caption states: "Sources: Nature Works (a Web site), Texas Tech University's online guide and Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection"] The species originally came from the south. Hammonasset Beach State Park has many of them; in the early evening, 30 to 40 can be found along the entrance road. It's High Season for Roadkill, and Disposal Costs Mount", article, "The New York Times", Connecticut and the Region section, October 21, 2007, page 3] But the state Department of Environmental Protection estimates only 3,000 deer-motor vehicle accidents occur annually.Lee, Natasha, "Controlled hunt set for nature preserves: Group aims to cull deer population", The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, October 19, 2007, Norwalk edition, pp 1, A6] State policy is to bury deer carcases by the side of the road where they were hit. Unlike coyotes, bobcats do not adapt well to nearby human populations; they prefer immature forests with a thick understory. [ [http://www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?a=2723&q=326044&depNav_GID=1655] Web page titled "Moose" at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Web site, retrieved December 30, 2007] The greatest danger to people from mooses is car collisions. (According to an estimate in "Connecticut Wildlife", published in 2004, "Winter density ranges up to about 40 per square mile in southwestern Connecticut, with a statewide mean of 21 per square mile. Some once-abundant species in the area were completely absent as of late 2007, according to an Audubon official.MooseMoose ("Alces alces") — have become more prevalent in Connecticut in recent years, with the first documented reproduction (a female and two calves) found in 2000, and an estimated 100 in the state as of 2007. But another estimate, based on a survey in the winter of 2006-2007 estimated only 29.4 deer per square mile in the county.Cassidy, Martin B., "Bow-hunting group calls for new deer census in Greenwich", The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, September 6, 2007, Stamford edition, page A5] Deer can carry up to 1,000 ticks, many of which have Lyme disease. Then What? It is unknown whether or not the burgeoning coyote population has resulted in a decline in bobcats, however. [ ] Web page titled "White-tailed Deer" at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Web site, retrieved December 30, 2007] By the 1970s, the total state population was about 20,000, and up to 76,000 (a low estimate) in 2000.Fairfield County has the highest deer density in the state. ")Connecticut has several problems associated with its large deer population:* Motor vehicle accidents: State Farm Insurance estimates that more than 10,000 deer in Connecticut are hit by cars each year.Schweber, Nate, "Car Hits Deer. Deer were nearly eliminated from the state by the end of the nineteenth century, with fewer than 20 in all of Connecticut, although they were on the rebound by that point, in part due to state regulations to protect them. "**"Advertise your presence by shouting and waving your arms or walk slowly away. [http://www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?a=2723&q=326018&depNav_GID=1655] Web page titled "Gray Squirrel" at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Web site, retrieved December 30, 2007] * American Red Squirrel ("Tamiasciurus hudsonicus") — found usually in spots with stands of mature conifers, including white pine or eastern hemlock, but even in those areas there are usually fewer than one individual per acre; * Southern flying squirrel ("Glaucomys volans") — common where there are nut trees and available nesting cavities, often near streams and wetlands* Northern flying squirrel ("Glaucomys sabrinus") — present in just a few areas in northern Connecticut; usually old-growth forests* Eastern chipmunk ("Tamias striatus") — common in woods Beavers (Order "Rodentia", Family "Castoridae")* Beaver ("Castor canadensis") — found in small and large low-gradient streams, including tidal parts of the lower Connecticut River, as well as lakes and other water that is both permanently present and deep enough not to freeze all the way to the bottom in winter; most common where its favorite food plants are (such as aspen, birch, willow, cottonwood and soft aquatic plants); they not only dam up smaller streams but can be found in rivers too big to be dammed; common in the state before the arrival of Europeans; trapping led to their extirpation in the state by about 1842, then were reintroduced, first in Union in 1914, and at other times up to the 1950s. From 1989 to 1991, they were reintroduced from New Hampshire and by 2004 were established in northern Connecticut. Reforestation of the state was the major factor allowing for the reintroduction and expansion of the bear population, and that expansion is expected to continue. "'Porpoises (Order "Cetacea", Family "Phocoenidae")* Harbor porpoise ("Phocoena phocoena") — rare, but sometimes found off the coast "'Seals (Order "Carnivora", Family "Phocidae")* Harbor seal ("Phoca vitulina") — This is the only marine mammal regularly living in Connecticut; found mostly in the eastern part of the coast (where there were at least several hundred as of 2004), but also in the west; not uncommon around Hammonasset Beach State Park, around Sheffield Island and Smith's Reef in the Norwalk Islands, and they have been spotted off Stamford and Greenwich; [Desmarais, Paul, "Photo Journal" photo feature (caption of picture of two harbor seals in Norwalk), "The Advocate" of Stamford, Norwalk edition, p A11, March 18, 2008] found from late fall through mid spring, usually on isolated ledges and rocks; in the past, they may have been permanent residents, but sealers and fishermen who killed the seals to prevent competition probably stopped that; for the warmer months of the year, they migrate to the Maine coast. In 1997, the DEP received about 100 calls reporting bear sightings. On October 4, 2007 a 700-pound bull moose was shot and killed by town of Fairfield, Connecticut police when it wandered too close to the Merritt Parkway. * Lyme disease:Culling the deer population in Groton, Connecticut by about 90 percent reduced the incidence of new Lyme disease cases in town from about 20 a year to two or three a year. In Massachusetts, three or four moose are hit by trains each year and about 15 motor vehicle collisions with the animals occur, although in some years there have been as many as 50. Local police are authorized to kill the animals if they pose a threat to public safety, which in practice almost only means that the animal is getting too close to a highway. [Stelloh, Tim, "Officials target deer in hunting proposal: New Canaan council hopes reduction will curb Lyme disease", article, "The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, August 19, 2007, page A3] * Habitat da In Greenwich, Connecticut, the Greenwich Audubon Society's convert|600|acre|km2 of land have seen deer push out ground birds such as the ovenbird and black and white warbler. "**"Report bear sightings to the Wildlife Division, at (860) 675-8130. [Desmarais, Paul, "Photo Journal: Wilds of Suburbia" photograph (of a groundhog in Stamford, Connecticut) with long caption, "The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, September 4, 2007, page A11, Norwalk and Stamford editions] * Gray squirrel ("Sciurus carolinensis") — the most frequently seen mammal in Connecticut and the largest squirrel found in the state. * Lyme disease:Culling the deer population in Groton, Connecticut by about 90 percent reduced the incidence of new Lyme disease cases in town from about 20 a year to two or three a year. Other factors are the mixture of young and mature forests, milder winters, and fewer predators. [ [http://www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?a=2723&q=326044&depNav_GID=1655] Web page titled "Moose" at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Web site, retrieved December 30, 2007] The greatest danger to people from mooses is car collisions. "**"Report bear sightings to the Wildlife Division, at (860) 675-8130. From 1995 to 2006, there was an average of one collision a year of a moose and an automobile across the state, but in the first half of 2007, there were four. Even before Connecticut was settled by Europeans, the moose population was never large, according to the DEP. Deer were nearly eliminated from the state by the end of the nineteenth century, with fewer than 20 in all of Connecticut, although they were on the rebound by that point, in part due to state regulations to protect them. In June 2007, a 500-pound bull moose collided head-on with a driver on the Merritt Parkway near Exit 37 in Stamford, Connecticut. Moose are native to the state but driven out as forest land was converted into farmland. * Lynx ("Lynx canadensis") — apparently never a permanent resident of the state, but historically it may have ranged occasionally here* Eastern Cougar, also known as Mountain lion ("Puma concolor", also called "Felis concolor") — There is no firm evidence that the species exists in the state but may be (rare) in hilly parts of northern Connecticut.Hoofed mammals"'Deer (Order "Artiodactyla", Family "Cervidae")White-tailed DeerWhite-tailed deer ("Odocoileus virginianus") — The population in the state is enormous and growing in large part because of the expansion of rural residential lands that are hospitable for deer but not suitable for hunting. Then What? (According to an estimate in "Connecticut Wildlife", published in 2004, "Winter density ranges up to about 40 per square mile in southwestern Connecticut, with a statewide mean of 21 per square mile. In 2007 they were sighted as far south as North Stamford in the extreme southwest corner of the state (they have also been seen increasingly in Rhode Island.Fact|date=December 2007* Striped skunk ("Mephitis mephitis") — common in the state and in various habitatsCats (Order "Carnivora", Family "Felidae")* Bobcat ("Felis rufus") — They favor thickets and patchy woods in the least-developed areas of the state, especially in the northwest highlands of Connecticut; they normally are scarce where coyotes are more prevalent. [Stelloh, Tim, "Officials target deer in hunting proposal: New Canaan council hopes reduction will curb Lyme disease", article, "The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, August 19, 2007, page A3] * Habitat da In Greenwich, Connecticut, the Greenwich Audubon Society's convert|600|acre|km2 of land have seen deer push out ground birds such as the ovenbird and black and white warbler. Moose are native to the state but driven out as forest land was converted into farmland. It's High Season for Roadkill, and Disposal Costs Mount", article, "The New York Times", Connecticut and the Region section, October 21, 2007, page 3] But the state Department of Environmental Protection estimates only 3,000 deer-motor vehicle accidents occur annually.Lee, Natasha, "Controlled hunt set for nature preserves: Group aims to cull deer population", The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, October 19, 2007, Norwalk edition, pp 1, A6] State policy is to bury deer carcases by the side of the road where they were hit. [Parry, Wynne, "More coyotes may be on the prowl in the area", "The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, November 23, 2007, pp 1, A4 Norwalk edition] * Gray wolf ("Canis lupus") — extirpated in Connecticut in the nineteenth century; deliberately killed by early settlers, but the population also was hurt by the reduction of its food supply (largely deer); some taxonomists say the wolf that used to inhabit Connecticut was actually the eastern Canadian wolf ("Canis lycaon")* Red fox ("Vulpes vulpes") — a native species to New England, but it probably interbred with red foxes introduced from Europe; the hybrid is now thought to be the only type in Connecticut; [ [http://www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?a=2723&q=326072&depNav_GID=1655] Web page titled "Red Fox" at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Web site, retrieved December 30, 2007] tends to be absent where coyotes are regularly present; prefers habitats with a mixture of fields and forest edges* Gray fox ("Urocyon cinereoargenteus") — fairly common, but less so than the Red fox; it tends to inhabit denser forests than the Red fox; the population has been growing for the past century with reforestation in the state the main cause; in the Connecticut, the normal home range for a fox is about two to four square miles, but abundance or lack of food supplies can change that [ [ ] Web page titled "Gray Fox" at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Web site, retrieved December 30, 2007] Bears (Order "Carnivora", Family "Ursidae")* Black bear ("Ursus americanus") — rare in most of the state, but fairly common in Litchfield and Hartford counties in the northwestern and north central parts of the state; bears have expanded from their core habitat in the state's northwestern hills; in 2002 the population was probably above 100 and growing, Geoffrey Hammerson wrote in "Connecticut Wildlife: Biodiversity, Natural History, and Conservation", but state wildlife biologists for the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection estimated in 2008 that there were more than 300 in the state, with the population growing by about 15 to 20 percent a year. DEP annual bear surveys began in 2001. ")Connecticut has several problems associated with its large deer population:* Motor vehicle accidents: State Farm Insurance estimates that more than 10,000 deer in Connecticut are hit by cars each year.Schweber, Nate, "Car Hits Deer. From 1995 to 2006, there was an average of one collision a year of a moose and an automobile across the state, but in the first half of 2007, there were four. Unlike deer, moose that feel threatened tend to stand their ground.Stelloh, Tim, "DEP forecasts more moose-car collisions: Official expects animal population to increase across the state"," The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, October 14, 2007, pp 1, A6] Moose are thought to be entering the state from the north. In 1997, the DEP received about 100 calls reporting bear sightings. Deer were nearly eliminated from the state by the end of the nineteenth century, with fewer than 20 in all of Connecticut, although they were on the rebound by that point, in part due to state regulations to protect them. [http://www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?a=2222&q=320792&depNav_GID=1655] Web page titled "Dealing with Distressed Bats" at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Web site, retrieved December 30, 2007] Bats that occupy buildings:* Little brown bat ("Myotis lucifugus") — common and widespread in the state This and the big brown bat are the two most common bat species in the state [http://www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?a=2723&q=325964&depNav_GID=1655] Web page titled "Bats" at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Web site, retrieved December 30, 2007] * Big brown bat ("Eptesicus fuscus") — winters in the state, often hibernating in buildings, occasionally caves; a bat seen in winter is probably this species; in summer it often roosts in attics; it breeds in the state.Bats that roost in trees in summer:* Silver-haired bat ("Lasionycteris noctivagans") — uncommon; usually seen near water; listed as a Connecticut species of special concern* Red bat ("Lasiurus borealis") — usually found at lower elevations; seldom seen and listed as a Connecticut species of special concern* Hoary bat ("Lasiurus cinereus") — seldom seen andlisted as a Connecticut species of special concern* Northern bat, also known as the Long-eared Bat ("Myotis septentrionalis")Bats that hibernate in caves and tunnels:* Northern bat (see above)* Little brown bat (see above)* Eastern Small-footed Bat ("Myotis leibii") — believed to have been extirpated in the state, and it was probably always scarce; no confirmed sightings have been recorded in the state for several decades; listed by the state as a "species of special concern"* Indiana bat ("Myotis sodalis") — in the several decades up to 2004, only one was ever found in the state, the bat is on both state and federal lists of endangered species* Eastern pipistrelle ("Pipistrellus subflavus")Rabbits and Hares"):* The Eastern cottontail ("Sylvilagus floridanus") was introduced to New England in the late 1800s and has expanded its range at the expense of the native New England Cottontail. But another estimate, based on a survey in the winter of 2006-2007 estimated only 29.4 deer per square mile in the county.Cassidy, Martin B., "Bow-hunting group calls for new deer census in Greenwich", The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, September 6, 2007, Stamford edition, page A5] Deer can carry up to 1,000 ticks, many of which have Lyme disease. A few days later, a 500-pound female was short and killed in Waterbury when it approached a highway entrance ramp. Benson, Judy, "State biologists keep track of bear population", article originally published by "Hartford Courant"; distributed by the Associated Press; article found in "The Advocate" of Stamford, Connecticut, March 23, 2008, p A14] they were extirpated from the state by 1840, but the DEP had hard evidence of a resident population in the 1980s. Even before Connecticut was settled by Europeans, the moose population was never large, according to the DEP. Otherwise, DEP officials will usually try to tranquilize the animal or harass them into a nearby woods (sometimes by banging on pots or forming a line to try to scare the animal away). Reforestation of the state was the major factor allowing for the reintroduction and expansion of the bear population, and that expansion is expected to continue. The deer have devastated species of plants once abundant on the Audubon group's land and ravaged low-lying vegetation, including hickory and hemlock saplings. Loss of farmland to forests is thought to have reduced the population since the 1930s, when New England cottontails were still thought to outnumber Eastern cottontails. Bears that persistently kill livestock, enter buildings or demonstrate similarly problematic behavior may be killed under state policy. There are 7 orders, 17 families, 40 genera, and 60 species represented among the mammals of New England. 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